Universities and academic freedom


The provision and quality of higher education is important in providing training to develop a specialised workforce which can contribute to society and the development of a sustainable economy. Higher education is any type of education given in post-secondary institutions of learning and usually awarding, at the end of a course of study, a named degree, diploma, or certificate of higher studies. Higher-educational institutions include universities, colleges and various professional schools, which provide preparation in a range of fields. Higher education also includes teacher-training schools, junior colleges, and institutes of technology.
This text is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace any reference documents.

Guiding Question

Does it affect universities and academic freedom / self-governance?

Relevant Policies

Council Recommendation (EC) No 561/98 (24 September, 1998) on European cooperation in quality assurance in higher education recommended that the EU Member States establish transparent quality-assessment and quality-assurance systems in the field of higher education. The aim of the recommendation was to safeguard and improve the quality of higher education while taking into consideration national conditions, the European dimension and international requirements (EC, 1998a).This question relates to the freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information without interference from a public authority and regardless of frontiers.


Web Resources

Other sources of data

Other sources of information


Eurostat indicators

Other indicators

Indicators to be developed

  • Administrative cost imposed by legislation
  • Impact assessment
  • Openness and participation
  • Level of involvement of consumer groups and companies
  • Public consultations
  • Proportion of environmentally harmful subsidies