The ASTRA model was built to provide analyses of the long-term impacts of the European common transport policy. The model can provide forecasts for the EU27, Norway and Switzerland, up to 2030 and uses a zoning system of up to four regions per country. The model is mainly used for:
- assessment of the impact of different policy packages, such as combinations of pricing policy, taxation, infrastructure policy or technology policy, on transport;
- R&D policy assessment;
- assessment of the economic impact of regional-scale environmental and transport policies.
ASTRA is a genuine integrated assessment model, consisting of eight modules, which integrate both macro- and micro-economic elements.
- population module (POP) provides population development in the 29 European countries. POP is calibrated to Eurostat population predictions;
- macro-economic module (MAC) provides the national economic framework which feeds through the other modules. MAC consists of 6 major elements:
1) the economic sectoral interactions between the 25 industries of the national economies;
2) the demand side model, which focuses on consumption, investment, exports-imports and government spending;
3) the supply-side model, which focuses on labour, capital stock and natural resources;
4) the labour module, which is based on value-added and labour productivity;
5) government behaviour; and 6) micro-macro bridges;
- regional economic module (REM) - calculates the generation and distribution of freight transport volume and passenger trips;
- foreign trade module (FOT) - is divided into two parts: trade between the EU member states (INTRA-EU model) and trade between the EU countries and the rest-of-the world, which is divided into 9 regions;
- transport module (TRA) - constitutes the demand for passenger and freight transport that is provided by the REM in form of origin-destination matrices (it looks at five passenger modes and three freight modes);
- vehicle fleet module (VFT) describes the composition of the vehicle fleet for all road modes. Vehicle fleets are differentiated by age classes and by emission standard categories;
- welfare measurement module (WEM) - analyses major macroeconomic, environmental and social indicators.
ASTRA Final Report: http://www.astra-model.eu/doc/ASTRA-Final_Report.pdf; ASTRA model development and description: http://www.astra-model.eu/doc/ASTRA-model.pdf; ASTRA model - appendices: http://www.astra-model.eu/doc/ASTRA-model_Annex.pdf;