Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies



Liaise ownership:



GAINS is an integrated systems model (composed of different sub-models that are brought together to function as a single system) designed to explore synergies and trade-offs between local and regional air pollution control and the mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions. The model can help to explore different pollution control strategies across the world and determine the ones that maximise benefits.
The current GAINS model incorporates the latest version of the RAINS-Europe model as it was prepared for the 2006 revision of the NEC directive. In summary, the characteristics of GAINS are such that the model is:

  •  focused on control and cost optimisation for user-specified policies and targets;
  • able to produce multi-pollutant, multi-impact pollution strategies;
  • able to provide optimisation solutions across various economic sectors across all European countries meeting user defined health targets;
  • a policy-analysis tool focused on environmental targets and the implications of achieving these targets;
  • capable of incorporating existing and adopted national and EU legislation in its baseline projections.

Output variables:

The GAINS model is structured on seven main model components:

  • modelling the driving forces of pollution;
  • modelling emissions;
  • modelling emission-control potentials and costs;
  • modelling health impacts of fine particles;
  • modelling health impacts of ground-level ozone;
  • modelling of ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation;
  • modelling acidification and eutrophication.


Markus Amann (Leader of the Transboundary Air Pollution Program),