Type of practice:
Wim de Vries, Johannes Kros, Carolien Kroeze and Sybil P Seitzinger (2013), Assessing Planetary and Regional Nitrogen Boundaries Related to Food Security and Adverse Environmental Impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5, pp. 392-402.
This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated.
The authors argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts. They revise the planetary N boundary by considering the need to: first, avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and second, feed the world population in an adequate way.